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Full text of "Christ the creator of the new Japan"

ENVELOPE 
SERIES 

(QUARTERLY) 

VOL. X APRIL, 1907 NO. 1. 



Christ the Creator 

of the 

New Japan 

BY 

WILLIAM ELLIOT GRIFFIS 

D.D., L.H.D. 

Author of "The Mikado's Empire," "The 
Religions of Japan," etc. 



"In some way, we know not how, a foundation 
had been laid and a church was to rise to the glory 
of God." D. C. Green. 



American Board of Commissioners 
for Foreign Missions, Boston,Mass, 

Annual Subscription, Ten Cents 



What is the Envelope 
Series? 

It is a quarterly in which the American 
Board puts out some of its choicest material. 
The pressure upon the Missionary Herald in 
dealing with the great news of the day makes 
it impossible to print in that monthly magazine 
the longer articles which are required for the 
fuller setting forth of our work. Moreover we 
need a pocket periodical such as this for more 
general distribution than would be possible with 
the Herald. The subscription price, ten cents, 
is merely noninal, enough to enable us to come 
under the government rate for second class 
matter. It is absolutely necessary, however, 
for us to have a large bona-fide subscription list 
in order to keep this valuable government 
privilege. For this reason we want as many 
as possible of our readers to become subscribers. 
For every subscriber we are allowed to send a 
free copy to some one else ; and in this way we 
can reach a large circle. Will you not help 
us extend our influence by sending the price of 
one or more subscriptions to John G. Hosmer, 
Congregational House, 14 Beacon street, Boston, 
Mass. 

We have never issued a more valuable num- 
ber than this on Japan. Dr. Griffis speaks 
with authority, and the place he accords to 
Christ and the Church in the making of the New 
Japan should encourage those who are standing 
behind the foreign missionary enterprise, and 
convince those who have been in doubt on this 
subject. We have asked him to write in a per- 
sonal vein, of what he himself has seen and 
heard 

CORNELIUS H. PATTON, 
Home Secretary. 



Entered at the Post Office, Boston, Mass., as second- 
class matter. 



Christ the Creator of the 
New Japan 

By Rev. William Elliot Griflz.s, D.D.,L.H.D. 

Of the New Japan, which is coming and has 
come, Jesus Christ is the creator. 

This has been my creed for forty years. 

What! Christ created the New Japan? Not 
her statesmen, generals and admirals; her armies 
and navies; her adoption of western methods and 
modern machinery; her diplomacy and internal 
reforms; her heirship of the ages? Not Bushido, 
or Yamato damashii, or the Oyomei philosophy? 
Not Dutch science and language nourishing the 
native intellect during Japan's long seclusion? 
Not Perry, Harris, or Parkes? 

Was not Japan a self-reformed hermit nation 
that simply allowed her own genius to unfold? 
Did Western men help at all? 

Hear Meredith Townsend, who, after long 
residence in India, knows the Asian peoples as 
few Occidentals know them — "Where is the 
European apostle, or philosopher, or statesman, 
or agitator, who has re-made Japan?" 

Hear Dr. Inazo Nitobe, one of Japan's most 
widely cultivated scholars, of cosmopolitan expe- 
riences, a profound thinker, a samurai, a Christian 
gentleman and author of " Bushido: The Soul of 
Japan." He says: 

"Some writers have lately tried to prove that 
the Christian missionaries contributed an appreci- 
able q jota to the making of New Japan. I would 
fain render honour to whom honour is due; but 
this honour can as yet hardly be accorded to the 
good missionaries. More fitting it will be to their 
profession to stick to the scriptural injunction of 
preferring one another in honour, than to advance 
a claim in which they have no proofs to back 
them. For myself, I believe that Christian mis- 
sionaries are doing great things for Japan — in 
the domain of education, and especially of moral 
education: — only, the mysterious though not 
the less certain working of the Spirit is still hidden 



in divine secrecy. Whatever they do is still of 
indirect effect. No, as yet Christian missions 
have effected but little visible in moulding the 
character of New Japan. No, it was Bushido, 
pure and simple, that urged us on foi weal or 
woe. Open the biographies of the [Japanese] 
makers of Modern Japan .... and you 
will find that it was under the impetus of samurai- 
hood [Bushido] that they thought and wrought." 

Bravo for this creed of my friend, who is also 
one of the Friends, a patriot and a philanthropist. 
With him, I believe that in the making of the New, 
yes, of the final Japan, "the mysterious, though 
not less certain working of the Spirit is still hidden 
in divine secrecy." 

Yet may I give the reason for the faith that is 
in me, by showing the base line for measuring 
some revealings of the Infinite and the working of 
the Spirit of Jesus in the making of the most hope- 
ful of Asiatic States. I confine my view almost 
wholly to the Japan before 1870, or before the 
coming of the first missionary of the American 
Board. I shall tell only what I saw, or heard 
from the lips of the actors, or what I know 
direct from the original documents. I was not a 
"missionary," except as any Christian is, or 
ought to be. I was in the educational service, 
first of the feudal authorities of Echizen and then 
of the national Government of Japan. 

In 1850, I saw Commodore Perry's flag ship, 
the Susquehanna, launched beside my father's 
coal yard, in Philadelphia. From that hour 
began in my heart a dim, vague interest in 
the Orient. Ours was a family that read about 
missions and subscribed to build the Morning 
Star. The old "Chinese Museum" in the Quaker 
City fed my imagination. 

Vagueness turned to personal interest when in 
1860 I saw my first Japanese and met some of the 
Shogun's embassy from Yedo sent to ratify the 
Townsend Harris compact. This second Ameri- 
can treaty opened Japan to the residence of mer- 
chants and missionaries. 

Yet already that wonderful committee of four 
American missionaries — who virtually had the 
whole field to themselves for ten years — were in 
the Land of Peaceful Shores. To ignore the work 
and influence of Williams, Hepburn, Brown and 
Verbeck in the making of New Japan, would be 



like forgetting April and May, in accounting for 
the harvests of autumn. 

By and by, in 1866, Japanese lads, eager, rosy, 
polite, friendly, became my pupils, fellow-students, 
mess-mates at boarding houses, playmates and 
pupils, during four years at Rutgers College. 
Japan was then no longer a strange, antipodal 
land. These lads, coming from many provinces, 
north, south, east and west of the empire, told 
me much of origins and movements from 1850 to 
1870, and how their fathers and grandfathers had 
found light and new vision. 

Then on the soil of Everlasting Great Japan, 
from December 29, 1870 to July, 1874 in the 
national and feudal capitals, in many journeys 
near and far, I lived, worked and travelled with 
the men of Bushido. The one subject of inquiry 
above all others upon which I was continually 
seeking light was, "How did Old Japan become 
New?' 7 Then venerable men and confiding lads 
were free to speak and write. Thirty years' 
reading, research and reflection have fixed my 
creed. Let me tell what I saw and what I know. 

I was. in the Japanese capital before there was 
a national army, navy, department of education, 
revenue system, railway, telegraph, or postage 
stamp. I knew Bushido when it was a reality, 
and saw feudalism from the inside as a living 
institution. I have made myself fairly familiar 
with the literature and history of Japan, especially 
with that written by "the Morning Stars of the 
Reformation. " I have discussed the vital points 
at issue, with hundreds of exceptionally bright 
Japanese, as to cause and effect. 

Therefore my creed! I could never imagine 
Bushido of itself alone, or Japanese Buddhism, 
or Shinto, or the Government, originating a Red 
Cross, a Peace Conference, a system of hospitals, 
a Woman's University, the emancipation and 
elevation to citizenship of pariahs and out-casts 
{eta and hiniri) , freedom of the press, the granting 
of full toleration of religion, of securing of real 
representative political institutions. In scarcely 
one of those features in the New Japan most ad- 
mirable to Christians or to the best men of the 
Occident, do I recognize the legitimate offspring 
of Bushido, or forces inherent in Japan. These 
have been propagated, not developed from within. 

No, it is to the Spirit of Jesus that we are to 



accredit most of what is morally superb in the 
New Japan — and this without for one moment 
nor in one iota unjustly undervaluing Bushido, 
the eighteenth century scholars, or the Mikado- 
reverencers, or the leaders of "the three clans," 
or the patriotism, sacrifices, vision or services of 
the men of 1868 — "the fifty-five creators" — or 
of those who, having received exotic seed, have 
cultivated the splendid flower. 

Not least among those who, led by the spirit of 
Jesus as they themselves confessed, " died without 
the sight" of evangelist or missionary. In "The 
Religions of Japan" (page 366) I have named 
the names and given the dates of native Japanese, 
who before the day of missionaries or churches, 
read of Jesus in Chinese or Dutch, and reading 
fell in love with Him and found the Father, His 
and theirs. Modern Christianity in Japan has a 
subterranean history. "In some way," writes 
the honored pioneer missionary of the American 
Board, Dr. D. C. Greene, in 1903 in a survey of his 
life and work in Japan, "we know not how, a 
foundation had been laid and a church was to rise 
to the glory of God. " 

And who was it that (under the patronage of 
my daimio, the honored lord of Echizen, whom I 
served and loved) had already cleansed Fukui of 
its moral pollution, of gamblers and prostitutes, 
made a model city of it and then in 1866 started 
his two nephews, Ise and Numagawa, to America 
as the vanguard of a later army . of Japanese 
students; who in hoary years was summoned to 
Kioto in 1868 as adviser to the new Government . 
who proposed freedom of conscience, religious 
toleration of Christianity, and the elevation of the 
pariah eta to citizenship, and was with terrific 
promptness assassinated with pistol and sword 
within five hours afterward? Who was he? His 
name was Yokoi Heishiro. On the proclamation 
of the Constitution, in 1889, the Mikado granted 
Yokoi high posthumous honor as a maker of the 
new Japan. His son became later pastor of one 
of the largest Kumi-ai Christian churches and is 
now one of the leading editors in Japan and mem- 
ber of the Parliament. I remember that it was 
only necessary, in 1S87, to tell in New England 
the story of his father's life and death to raise for 
his son within a few weeks $10,000 for a fine 
church in Tokio. 

6 



What gave this man Yokoi Heishiro his new 
spirit and outlook, causing him to embrace and 
champion such modern ideas as freedom of con- 
science and the elevation of despised humanity? 
What made him prophesy, long before the A. B. 
C. F. M. had a missionary in the country, that as 
soon as Christianity came to Japan, the native 
young men of brightest mind would welcome the 
new faith gladly? 

I knew Yokoi 's pupils in Fukui and Tokio, for 
they were among those most signally active in the 
building of a new moral world in Japan, and I 
knew his son and I know his writings. Yokoi, 
when an active teacher of ethics, obtained from 
China a copy of the Gospels, studied them dili- 
gently, and was charmed with the Master, his and 
ours. He incorporated the teachings of Jesus 
in his ethical lectures. He lived and died and was 
slain because he was known to be a Christian. 
In the assassin's phrase, he was suspected of 
harboring "evil opinions," i. e. the Jesus religion. 
"Was he a church member?'' does some one ask. 
Yokoi poured out his life blood in 1869. There 
was no Protestant church in Japan until 1872. 

Of Yokoi, the Christian's, nearest and most 
loyal pupils, we may exclaim how wonderfully 
Christlike their lives! Who were more to be 
praised, than for example, — two out of many — 
Echizen Shungaku (my prince) and Count Katsu 
Awa? The first introduced compulsory vaccina- 
tion, modern medicine and hygiene and a host of 
reforms, moral and social, in his capital city Fukui, 
which became a centre of learning and a focus for 
the advocacy of Western civilization. He was 
one of the leading men in the breaking up of feudal- 
ism, in reforming Yedo and in bringing in the New 
Japan. It was his province that made initial pro- 
vision in Japan for a staff of foreign teachers in 
which were organized the first public schools out- 
side the national capital, in the system now 
numbering thirty thousand attended by five 
million pupils daily. 

Katsu Awa, pupil of Yokoi, who was first 
virtually and then openly a Christian, I knew long 
and well. He navigated the first Japanese 
steamer across the Pacific in 1860, founded the 
modern navy of Japan, and saved Yedo in 1868 
from the avenging torch of the army of Saigo. 
Greatest of all, this hero flouted and defied the 



brutal side of Bushido, putting information, 
reason, righteousness, humanity for all classes, 
and the Christian idea of forgiveness of enemies 
above the sword. " You don't kill enough" w 
the stingless reproach (meant to be venomous) of 
a ferocious champion of Bushido, to Katsu of the 
sheathed sword and unquailing spirit. Fearl< 
amid infesting assassins and at the council board, 
from which timid statesmen in great crises fled, 
Katsu in the Imperial Cabinet championed 
Christian ideas, protected missionaries, stopped 
persecution, brought in more teachers (using me 
as his intermediary) and sent his son to study in 
America. 

Other men of Christian mind, pupils of the 
great missionary Verbeck, were Soyeshima and 
Okuma. Both became counts. The former, as 
minister of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to 
China, won the audience question at Peking, and 
was long a mighty force in the making of the new 
State. Okuma, long and repeatedly in high 
office and once premier, founder of the Waseda 
University, Liberal leader, is still a mighty power 
in the Empire. Because of his liberality of views 
towards foreigners, he lost a leg by a dynamite 
bomb thrown at him by a fanatic. Ever a warm 
friend of Americans and of all who work for the 
spiritual uplifting of Japan, his whole political life 
and the spirit of the University which he founded 
and presides over breathe the idea of principles 
versus opportunism and of the right against the 
expedient. 

Both Okuma and Soyeshima were among Ver- 
beck's most receptive and diligent pupils, being 
especially instructed in the New Testament and 
the Constitution of the United States. 

Arimori Mori, first Japanese envoy in Washing- 
ton and author of ''Education in America/' who 
secured the abolition of sword-wearing and im- 
proved laws regulating divorce and the rights of 
women, came early under the influence of Ver- 
beck. I knew him well and often discussed with 
him the gravest themes. When Dr. W. A. P. 
Martin at Peking asked him if he was a Christian. 
Mori answered "I try to live so as to be thought 
one." On the day of the proclamation of the 
Constitution in INS!), Mori was assassinated by a 
Shinto fanatic, but his long-cherished hope of see- 
ing a Woman's University in Japan became a 



reality through Mr. Naruse, a Christian Japanese. 

One trustworthy measure of civilization is a 
nation's regard for its true half, the women. 
Bus hi do, which concerned only ten per cent of the 
Japxnese people, did a little to exalt the average 
and Buddhism did less. The first missionary 
teaching of Japanese girls was by Mrs. J. C. Hep- 
burn and later by Miss Mary Kidder (Mrs. E. R. 
Miller) at Yokohama. The first school for girls 
under Government auspices was in Tokio, taught 
by Miss M. C. Griffis and Mrs. P. V. Vedder. This 
original has become the great Peeresses School 
in Tokio. Today the elementary schools for 
girls and women number hundreds, but most of 
those of higher grade are sustained by Christian 
people. 

If the science of government be one of the 
noblest, and man's progress be marked by his 
political structures, Japan has certainly been led 
by the spirit of Jesus, for her Government (once 
in ante and anti Christian days, one of the most 
cruel and arbitrary) is now representative and 
astonishingly liberal and exists chiefly for the good 
of the people. A volume by a native author of 
surpassing interest is that analyzed by Dr. J. H. 
DeForest, in the New York Independent, showing 
the vast advance in enlightened government and 
popular liberty within the Meiji period (1868- 
1907). In the development of self-government 
and organization and practice in debate and 
general preparation for advanced political life, 
the work of the American missionaries has been 
signally efficient.* 

Of the chief founders of the parties which are 
necessary to interpret a written Constitution, as 
fore-runners and moulders of the Constitution of 
1889, one was a genuine Christian, Nakamura 
Masanawo. He was one of the first friends and 
patrons of Christian missionaries. After a visit 
to England, he in the sixties wrote a remarkable 
pamphlet in defense of Christianity, and this at a 
time when the anti-Christian edicts, issued by the 
old and the new governments, hung all over 
Japan. Nakamura taxed his countrymen with 
seeking to gather the fruit of Christianity with- 
out inquiring into the roots. 

He challenged the right even of the Mikado 

♦"The American Missionary in Japan," by M. L. Gordon, a most 
illuminative book. 



(aged eighteen) to decide on the truth of the 
Christian religion without inquiry and personal 
experience. I knew Xakaniura well and talked 
long and often with him on Christian themes. He 
received or bought most of the books in my Dot 
inconsiderable library, which I had brought to 
Japan. He died in the full faith of a Christian, 
having founded a school, employed Christian 
missionaries as teachers and translated Mill "On 
Liberty," Smiles' " Self-Help/' the Constitution 
of the United States, etc. 

This paper is written with the idea of making- 
inquiries into facts and truths, and of dealing in 
fairness with all, of whatever name, alien or 
native, mikado-reverencer, champion of bushido, 
samurai, layman, minister, or missionary — "or- 
thodox" or otherwise. Seeing the rlow r er, we 
ask, Who brought the seed? Japan's popular 
creed is ingwa — cause and effect : her noblest 
ideals are girt — righteousness; and her exemplars 
Gi-shi — righteous knights. Praise to God for 
all that is good in Japan ! 

So, when we ask, whence the soil of Japan's 
hopes and ideals, her noble and loyal devotion to 
the Geneva Convention, the Red Cross and the 
Hague Tribunal, who can, who would, forget 
Sano of '77 (who formed the Society, out of 
which grew Japan's Red Cross) and the hosts of 
native Japanese, good men and women, working 
for the nation's regeneration? 

Not I surely. Yet until 1868, the rule of war 
on the battle-field was to cut off, collect and 
officially count the heads of slain enemies. Mercy 
on the red field, in the sense of caring for wounded 
enemies, was next to unknown. Hara-kiri was 
the subjective and passive rule for the defeated 
men. A river of sucide's blood flows through all 
the history of Japan. 

It was a Christian gentleman and physician. 
Dr. Willis of the British Legation, who, on the 
fourth of February, 1868, first treated a wounded 
eta, or pariah woman, at Kobe, when even Japan- 
ese servants would not stay in the same room with 
her to help — so great was the imaginary defile- 
ment. A few days later, as volunteer surgeon. 
Dr. Willis attended to the ex-shogun's wounded 
at Osaka and then made his way into Kioto on the 
sixteenth of February, after the heavy fighting 
between the southern reforming and the northern 

10 



conservative clansmen. Seeing the condition of 
things, — the streets in and around the city 
littered with the wounded and "the enemy" neg- 
lected by the victors, Dr. Willis refused to un- 
clasp his case of instruments or begin his work 
unless all feud were forgotten in humanity and he 
were allowed to give equal attention to the 
wounded on both sides. 

Here Christianity won initial victory. The 
men of New Japan yielded, and the precedent was 
set which Japan followed in the Chinese and 
Russian wars. When the campaign moved to 
the North and the heavy fighting at Wakamatsu, 
in October, 1868, let loose old passions, the indis- 
criminate slaughter or contemptuous neglect' of 
the wounded being, as in medieval days, the rule, 
Dr. Willis made so vigorous a protest at head- 
quarters about such savagery that his words, 
backed bv his stern refusal to serve unless heeded, 
made new law for Japan. Clan lines were wiped 
out in a common humanity. Thus at the dictate 
of a Christian, mercy was first shown equally to 
either side. Thus the way was prepared for the 
mighty men — Sano, Ishiguro, Takagi and the 
splendid surgeons of to-day. God bless them all, 
and may Japan excel even Europe in humanity's 
greater successes to come. Our purpose is not to 
glorify individuals, but to show how the Spirit of 
Jesus moved men's hearts. 

Long before Japan was opened to the light of 
Christ's gospel, the Holy Spirit was the compelling 
power of prayer and gifts for Japan. In Brook- 
line, Mass., even in the thirties, the petitions rose 
and the coins dropped in behalf of fair Japan.* 
In time the spirit of Jesus led Xeesima to America. 
"Had there been a hundred men like Alphaeus 
Hardy, there might have been a hundred Neesi- 
mas. " This I said first, in 1886. I believe it 
yet. When Neesima personally uttered the 
Macedonian cry, at Rutland, the money was 
ready and the response made. The American 
Board sent out its pioneer in 1869 — David 
Crosby Greene, then in vigorous youth, now the 
wise, far-seeing, broad-minded leader who has 
been one of God's right-hand men in the making 
of the New Japan. Noble as was Neesima 's 
work when living, it has been greater since his 
"change of worlds." To-day President Harada 

* Dux Christus. p. 286. 

11 



as head of the Doshisha continues Neesima's 
labors in true spiritual succession. 

In like manner it was the Spirit of Jesus, in 
other branches of the Christian church, long 
before Perry's expedition, that moved men in 
America to offer gold and souls, property and 
life for Japan's good, and in the sealed country 
itself to grope after God to find Him. 

Even the first American diplomatists exerted an 
influence directly Christian. Perry, the bluff 
sailor, was a daily Bible reader and kept the Lord's 
day. He always encouraged and helped the navy 
chaplains and was intensely and personally in- 
terested in the elevation of humanity everywhere. 
Townsend Harris, an honorable merchant above 
reproach, chairman of the Board of Education 
and founder of the Free Academy (now College of 
the City of New York), was a reverencer of the 
Sabbath, a Bible reader and a devout Christian 
worshipper. Apart from their diplomatic abili- 
ties or official behavior, what was their influence 
upon the Japanese? 

Here we can trust wholly to insular testimony. 
The Commodore was more than his fleet. The 
metropolitan merchant stands on the pages of 
Nitobe and Tokutomi, as one of the noblest types 
of Christian diplomacy and is known in Japan as 
"The Nation's Friend. "* 

A committee on the deck of an American war 
steamer at Nagasaki in 1858, Messrs. S. Wells 
Williams, Rev. Edward Syle, and Chaplain 
Wood, U. S. A., after a call on the Japanese 
governor of the city, saw clearly the kind of 
missionaries especially needed. They at once 
wrote home to their respective Boards of Missions. 
On receiving word of the Harris treaty, the 
Reformed, the Presbyterian, and the Episcopal 
churches sent out their chosen men. At Naga- 
saki, early in 1859, were Williams and Verbeck, at 
Yokohama were Hepburn and Brown. This 
committee of four had virtually the whole field to 
themselves for ten years, from 1859 to 1869, when 
New Japan was in germ. 

What was the social and moral condition of 
Japan in pre-missionary days? Having in 1871 
lived in a feudal province, without seeing a white 
foreigner for months at a time, I can answer this 

♦See the biographies of Perry and Harris, and NitoWs Inter- 
course Between the United States and Japan. 

12 



question fairly well. It is no wonder that much 
of Perry and Harris's colloquies had to take the 
form of moral discussions — humanity to ship- 
wrecked, the uselessness of both white and black 
lies and of polite and other sorts of deception, of 
mercy in prisons, of decency in life, of the folly 
of persecution for conscience' sake. We are, all 
of us, glad that Japan sent thousands of students 
and repeated embassies to Europe and America to 
pluck the ripe fruits of Christian civilization, and 
to scoop in and import the results of ages, quickly 
adapting them to her own use and benefit; but it 
is one of the scandals of Japanese "official" 
history and the disgrace of the nation that the 
origin of their indebtedness and the services of 
the thousands of yatoi, or servant-foreigners in 
government employ, from 1868 to 1900, are in the 
public documents virtually ignored. 

The situation was this. For over two hundred 
years Christ had been officially preached in Japan 
as the founder of "the accursed sect." Having 
driven out, with crucifixion, fire, and sword, the 
men who came from countries which then claimed 
the whole world as the private property of the 
Kings of Spain and Portugal, the Japanese banned 
the religion of the Inquisition. Hence the awful 
wall of prejudice, ignorance and insular bigotry, 
which the American and modern Protestant 
missionaries had first to sap and raze before lay- 
ing new foundations. In the years of fulfilled 
scriptural promise, the words of Ps. 18:29 had 
new and personal meanings. 

No one can understand the Japanese unless he 
realizes that here is a nation within a nation. 
Ten per cent, or five millions, holding the power 
which came from the sword and from the culture 
enjoyed during a thousand years, ruled the 
other ninety per cent of the common or unprivi- 
leged people. In 1870, about five per cent were 
"educated," that is, cultured in Bushido (the 
Knight's code) ; the other ninety-five per cent were 
"the people" — who had no political existence 
and few rights which sworded men respected. 
Not until the seventeenth century, in the long 
peace of the Tokugawa period, did they know 
much of Bushido and then only in novels and on 
the stage. As for the merchant or trader, he had 
no social standing. One million souls, as pariahs, 
were outside of reckoned humanity. Contagious 

13 



and infectious diseases, frightful poverty and 
beggary abounded. Famines had, for over a 
century and a half, been frequent and devasta- 
ting. The status of woman was low. The 
horrible doctrines of filial piety run to seed made 
prostitutes of thousands of daughters of respect- 
able people and of tens of thousands of orphans. 
Women were sold to whoremongers in droves. 
Then as now, Japan's name stank among the 
nations for its licensed, its legalized, its glorified 
prostitution of women. Sin was made safe for 
the man, while the woman was left to damnation 
in both worlds. 

BEHIND ALMOST EVERY ONE OF THE 
RADICAL REFORMS THAT HAVE MADE A 
NEW JAPAN STANDS A MAN — TOO OFTEN 
A MARTYR — WHO WAS DIRECTLY MOVED 
BY THE SPIRIT OF JESUS, OR WHO IS OR 
WAS A PUPIL OF THE MISSIONARIES. 

To-day Japan is a world-power. May she 
always be such for the elevation of the race. Her 
statesmen, scholars, inventors, surgeons, ethical 
teachers, to say nothing of sailors and soldiers 
stand peer to any on earth. Yet, who trained 
most of these? 

Some, like Count Okuma and General Kodama, 
never went out of their own country. Others 
have deliberately rejected, some even ostenta- 
tiously scout the idea of all influence from aliens. 
Some like young chicks, even with the shell 
fragments unseen to themselves on their own 
crown, deny the existence of the egg out of which 
" their own ideas" were hatched. Those who 
knew Japan's "official" history of ancient times 
and the process of its making for the ignorant and 
uncritical multitude are not surprised at this 
weak spot in Japanese character. 

Yet we must judge the Japanese not in mass, 
but as individuals. There is a new kind of man in 
Japan who is not only grateful and honest, but 
actually loves and tells the truth — even when it 
is disagreeable. Yes, and there are memorials 
of gratitude that rise on the soil. May the spirit 
of Paul, who said "I am debtor," ever grow with 
the Japanese as well as with us conceited Ameri- 
cans, who would insult or bar out "Asiatics" — 
even t hough Jesus was one. 

When Verbeck at Nagasaki made a trip into an 

14 



inferior feudal fief, he saw public baths of two 
kinds — one for human beings and one for ''horses 
and beggars." He — already master of seven 
languages and literatures — quickly began to 
teach boys. In him was the Spirit of Jesus the 
foot -washer. Soon the Governor established a 
"school for interpreters." Before 1870, when 
summoned to Tokio to advise statesmen, Yerbeck 
had taught hundreds of young men, sons of the 
knights, lords and high nobles. After the revo- 
lution of 1868, which upset the old and begun the 
Xew Japan, his former pupils called him to 
organize a university and elaborate a national 
system of education. For twenty-two years he 
was in the Government service. For a long time 
he was the only foreign adviser — for they trusted 
him fully. Often in the early seventies he was 
closeted with the prime minister in Tokio for 
hours at a time. It was he who proposed and 
outlined in detail the great embassy round 
the world, which on its return in 1873 swung 
the nation into western civilization and turned 
its face, from the past and the Orient, to 
the future and the Occident. Yerbeck found 
on the list of the embassy, when made out, over 
one-half of his former pupils. In intimate friend- 
ship, he first gave the rulers in Tokio the ideas of 
freedom of the press and the right of laymen to 
hold ecclesiastical property — a new thing in 
Japan — translated laws and constitutions, ad- 
vised and powerfully influenced scores of young 
men in their most impressionable age, who are 
now, or have been, among Japan's ablest states- 
men. He was one of the first scientific students 
of seismology in Japan. He invented an earth- 
quake-recorder of vaiue. In a large sense, he 
was one of the true ancestors of the modern public 
school army and navy that humbled China in 
1894 and Russia in 1905. Others may, but I 
could not conceive of the Xew Japan of 1907 
without Yerbeck. I was there during 1870-1874, 
often in his house and in his intimate confidence. 
Time or space would fail to tell of his evangelical 
and Bible translation work. For exact dates 
and details read " Yerbeck of Japan. " 

It has been stated by a high authority in 
practical education, diplomacy and states- 
manship, that the elision of the practical 
difficulties in the way of the learning of English 

15 



by Asiatics, would be equal in value to an army 
of one hundred thousand missionaries. Be that 
as it may. Let us ask, why are the modern 
Japanese virtually the pupil of the Anglo-Saxon 

nations? From intimate knowledge of details, 
in the cradle days of Japan, 1 can answer that the 
study of the English language was not only 
systematically introduced and fostered by Ameri- 
can missionaries, but it was they who awoke the 
hunger and continued interest of the Japanese. 
Verbeck knew many languages, but he advised 
the use of English as the basis of general use and 
popular education, and of German for science. 
This advice was taken by the men of the new 
government who were high in office and influence. 
Who was it that provided first the phrase books 
and grammars, and then the colossal standard 
dictionary of Japanese-English and English- 
Japanese on which the multifarious library of 
helps since made have been based? We answer, 
the same who translated the Bible into Japanese 
and thus " built a railway through the national 
intellect" — the missionaries. 

Samuel Robbins Brown, though sent out, as 
Verbeck was, by the Reformed (Dutch) Church 
in America was of Mayflower, New England, and 
Congregational ancestry, son of Phoebe Brown 
who wrote the hymn "I love to steal awhile away 
from every cumbering care." The original verse 
had "little ones," and Samuel was one of these. 
Born at East Windsor, Conn., June 16, 1810, he 
was thirteen days old w r hen the A. B. C. F. M. was 
formed. Indeed, when this mother of missionary 
spirit and habit, who helped to pray the American 
Board into existence, heard the news, she dedi- 
cated her son to the foreign missionary work. 
Brown sang his way through Yale College and 
Columbia, S. C, Seminary, teaching music to 
support himself, one of his pupils being Miss 
Bullock, known then to God only as the future 
mother of President Roosevelt. Brown married 
the daughter of Rev. Shuabel Bartlett, Congre- 
gational pastor of fifty years' service at Eas( 
Windsor, Conn., and b< th went to China to found 
the first Protestant Christian school (the Morri- 
son) in China in 1838. After ten years' labor 
(his life once nearly taken by Chinese pirates) 
he came home, bringing the first Chinese students 
— the advance guard of a great host — to this 

16 



country. In the prime of life, when forty-eight 
years old, he first found Verbeck and with him 
sailed for Japan, arriving November 3, 1859, the 
birthday of the Emperor, then six years old. 
From 1859 to 1879 his labors were manifold. A 
born teacher, he not only " discovered the future 
tense," and published his " Colloquial Japanese" 
according to the Prendergast mastery system, 
but lived to see the completion of his labors in the 
New Testament in Japanese. Many a time I saw 
him in school and study, at the translation table, 
in the pulpit and at Bible class labors. His 
genius, under God, was to raise up pupils, to give 
Japan "a hundred Browns." His special work 
was the training of a native ministry. To-day, 
nearly thirty years after his death, his " works 
do follow" gloriously. In China, his scores of 
pupils helped mightily to make the China we see 
to-day. In Japan, "Dr. Brown's pupils," re- 
formers, editors, pastors, presidents of Christian 
colleges, stand numerously in the high places of 
influence, each a rock of conviction amid the 
winds and waves of ever shifting opinion. No 
early missionary in Japan so impressed his 
character upon his pupils or did so much to make 
the English language the vehicle of Japan's 
modern reformation. His is a life unto life.* 

Still abiding among us, in serene old age, is 
Bishop Williams of the Episcopal Church, whose 
record of service in Japan may yet reach the 
stadium of half a century, for he also began his 
labors at Nagasaki in 1859. The stamp of 
divine power through this servant of God is upon 
the Japanese nation for moral and spiritual good. 

With the snows of ninety-two years upon his 
brow, James Curtis Hepburn, M. D., the oldest 
living graduate of Princeton College, is still with 
us at East Orange, N. J. A layman consecrated 
to Christ, he went out first to China as medical 
missionary at Amoy, but through failure of his 
wife's health returned to New York. While en- 
gaged in a lucrative practice, the call came to go 
to Japan. The four months' voyage under sail 
was made, and soon at Yokohama a dispensary 
was opened and Dr. Hepburn began the healing 
of the needy and the taming of the language. I 
saw him often in his home at the study table, 
where lexicography and Bible translation went on, 

♦See " A Maker of The New Orient " ; Samuel Bobbins Brown. 

17 



day by day in laborious routine, and in the dis- 
pensary where rotten, woe-begone humanity 
thronged for succor. The double service — no 
"eight hour" limit to his long days work — iasted 
forty years. When he left Japan, it was a new 
country of Christian churches, hospitals, orphan- 
ages and asylums. 

To-day Japan leads the world, perhaps, in 
public hygiene. In military surgery and thera- 
peutics, she has lowered all records in saving life 
in camp and on deck. We rejoice with her and 
can learn from her. Yet inquiring as to how and 
whence this triumph, it is seen to be a question of 
flower and seed. 

I put aside knowledge gained by critical ques- 
tioning of the pioneer physicians and first comers 
from the Occident, the native records of plague, 
pestilence, famine and beggary, with which I am 
familiar, and tell only what I saw in the country 
before 1874. There were no hospitals with in- 
lying patients in Japan until the Christian 
missionaries came. Secret, contagious, infectious 
diseases ran riot. Small pox and the other muti- 
lating diseases were not quarantined, hardly 
repressed. Day by day, in Dr. Hepburn's dis- 
pensary, 1 saw fronting him a mass of stricken 
humanity, mothers and their infants often in 
hopeless stages, but around the good doctor a 
dozen or so of promising Japanese young men 
were being trained in modern medical science. 
Most of these young men have since, reinforced by 
education in Europe, America, or the splendid 
medical schools in Japan, founded by men from 
Christian countries, become famous. Hepburn 
was pioneer in science, but this was but a part of 
his work. Already when, in 1871, I left for the 
interior, I carried with me a copy of the great 
dictionary — key to treasures of the language — 
and also of the four gospels translated in Japanese. 
At Fukui, some gospel light was shed in that no- 
torious and age-long citadel of Buddhism, where 
in 1907 a Congregational Church is a steadily 
burning candle. 

It was an American physician, sent out by the 
American Board, Dr. J. C. Berry, who first intro- 
duced prison reform in Japan, and showed the 
value of the trained woman nurse. Until the 
Japanese Government took up the work. Dr. 
Berry trained the then very few female nurses 

18 



now numbering probably ten thousand. There 
was a reason why, in 1894, China went to battle 
without a hospital corps, while Japan had already, 
besides a body of skilled surgeons, probably as 
many as 1£00 certificated women army nurses. 

Music is not least among the elevating and 
refining influences of the Christian civilization. 
In the main, the old Asiatic music is a wail of 
sadness. There are sweet strains also, besides 
those that have power to fire the passions of lust 
and war, but the music of China, Korea, and old 
Japan is not calculated to exalt the race. Japan 
demands the music of Christendom. 

It was a Christian lady, a missionary's wife, 
Mrs. J. H. Ballagh, who, after wise men, skilled 
in the science and art, had doubted (even to the 
preparation of a compromise musical scale) the 
ability of the Japanese voice to master our scale, 
encouraged a bright Japanese boy to sing our 
diatonic scale even to the second do, made Occi- 
dental music possible. To-day, with piano, or- 
gan, cornet, bugle, and brass bands, not only do 
% the Christians, with their superb hymnals, choirs, 
and popular songs, inherit and enjoy Occidental 
music, but army and navy populace and pro- 
cession find new delights in music. The cornet, 
organ and piano are common sights in the houses. 
Out from the Christian churches has issued this 
stream of elevating influences. 

Of the good to his people from these missionary 
services, the Emperor has not been unmindful. 
At recommendation of his wisest and best-in- 
formed men, not only Verbeck and Hepburn, but 
other missionaries in later years have been deco- 
rated with jewels — marks of Imperial and 
national favor. "The gratitude of Orientals" 
was finely illustrated in the case of Brown, when, 
visiting China in his old age, his grateful pupils 
entertained him. A heavy silver slab set in 
teakwood, richly chased and engraved, sets forth 
how the gentle dews on the mountain tops, and 
the drops at the fountain, become fertilizing 
streams, and even a broad-bosomed river bearing 
rich freight to the immeasurable sea. 

We that were not missionaries, but only yatoi 
(hired foreigners in government service) can 
afford to bear witness to the truth. The world 
quickly forgets what the missionaries did in the 
lapsed years, when, like the engineers and "sand 

10 



hogs" under the great city's roar, they toiled in 
the caissons, dug in the tunnels, or labored in 
darkness forgotten. We shoot through the sub- 
way, revelling in swiftness, we enjoy the sparkle 
of tiled wall and the comfort of platforms and are 
proud of results. So, let us not drop to oblivion 
the record of the missionaries in Japan. In the 
summer splendor of world power, with all the 
mighty forces of civilization at her command, let 
us rejoice with her, but remember what w T ent on 
before 1870. 

I utter my faith that the Japanese are becom- 
ing, and will be, a great Christian nation — yet 
God's promises are conditional, and much depends 
on us, his co-workers. We may make Admiral 
Togo's signal our own. 

Yet expect not the Japanese, with an intel- 
lectual training of a thousand years, to be Chris- 
tians after our sort. They will not accept the 
Greek or Latin culture as fully as we have done, 
nor be fettered with it. They can discern between 
Jesus and modern freakishness. Therein are 
they led of the Spirit. They will go to Jesus and 
learn of Him and to the Scriptures and assimilate 
its message. 

We need not be afraid of the Jesus Way, or the 
Congregational method. Trust the Japanese 
Christian, as the American, to be orthodox. 
Jesus Christ was and is the Creator of the New 
Japan. As Lord of the Centuries He is leading 
the greater Japan that is to be. 



20 



What Pastors are Saying 
About Our Stereopticon 
Slides Sx 3^ 3m 3\ & 



The Board has been paying a good deal of 
attention of late to improving its stereopticon 
slides, and it is encouraging to find that the 
pastors are becoming aware of this fact and 
making more use of them. There is no better 
way than this to interest a church in missions. 
]f vou never have tried to preach missions 
through the eye, you will be surprised to find 
how effective it' is. Moreover, this helps solve 
the problem of the evening service, because the 
pictures are as interesting as they are instructive. 
We now have many sets covering most of our 
twenty missions and all phases of the work. 
Some of these sets are beautifully colored and 
appeal to the artistic sense of the people. To 
show how effective these illustrated lectures 
are, we quote from a few opinions recently 
received. 



Rev. George W. Owen, Pastor of First Church of Christ, Lynn, Mass. 
" For interesting those indifferent, and for enlisting the young 
in the cause of foreign missions, I believe the reality and attractive- 
ness of stereopticon pictures are a powerful means. .V a recent 
illustrated lecture on Micronesia many of our young people were 
present who would not have heard an ordinary secretary's appeal. 
Several of our people tarried to ask questions of the speaker." 

Rev. Parris T. Farwell, Pastor of Congregational Church, Wellesley 
Hills, Mass. 
" I have found the American Board stereopticon slides useful 
far beyond my expectation. Information is what the people 
need, and many who will not attend the ordinary missionary 
concert or read a missionary paper will attend services to see 
pictures where the very best information can be given to them. 
I am certain that the lectures in my church, given at intervals for 
the past three years, have not only instructed the youns: and the 
friends of missions, but have changed the antagonistic attitude of 
some opponents. The church is wise that owns a lantern, especial- 
ly in mission work." 

Rev. David L. Yale, Pastor of Congregational Church, Talcottville, 
Conn. 

" A great help in gathering audiences to consider Foreign 
Missions. 

" An unequalled means for developing certain essential mission- 

21 



aiy motives, such as : — a feeling of fellowship with our mission- 
aries; sympathy for heathen peoples; confidence in missionary 
methods; and faith in Christ's power to save." 

Rev. J. H. Matthews, Pastor of Old South Church, Worcester, Mass. 
•' During the past ten years i have used a large number of the 
lecture sets oi the American Hoard with the greatest satisfaction 
I hey an- ten times more effective than the average missionary 
sermon or address. The plan is ideal, and I am positive the 
churches would use them a great deal if they only knew their 
value." 

Miss Martha T. Fiske, Member of First Church (Congregational) 
Cambridge, Mass. 

" As Missionary Chairman of our Sunday School, I have found 
the sets of stereopticon slides issued by the American Board 
valuable for many of our monthly missionary programs. The 
descriptions of the slides furnish all the necessary information. 
so that one who is unused to public speaking can give a good 
talk. The pictures are excellent and give a vivid idea of the 
country or work presented." 

Rev. Oscar E. Maurer, Pastor of First Congregational Church, 
Great Barrington, Mass. 

" I wish to thank you very sincerely for the use of the slides 
illustrating the Madura Mission. The lecture was well attended 
and has been of real help to our people." 

Rev. J. H. Yeoman, Pastor of Free Evangelical Church, Providence. 
R.I. 

" We had a large congregation to see and hear Africa No. 2, 
and I am convinced that this is the best method I have ever tried 
to interest the rank and file in missions." 

Rev. M. C. Julien, Pastor of Trinitarian Congregational Church, 
New Bedford, Mass. 

" I can bear witness to the value of the use of the stereopticon 
fc awakening a popuia. interest in the work of Foreign Missions. 
The slides you have sent me, with the explanatory notes accom- 
panying them, supply a very attractive as well as convenient 
means of presenting the work of the Board in the unchristianized 
parts of t lie world. I expect to make greater use of them in the 
future than I have yet done." 

Rev. William H. Medlar, Pastor of First Congregational Church, 
York, Neb. 

" I find these services most helpful to get people interested in 

missions." 

Rev. C. H. Daniels, D.D., Paster Grace Congregational Church, 
South Framingham, Mass. 

" I have used twelve different sets of slides representing the 
mission fields or departments of the work of the American Hoard 
with great satisfaction. I know of nothing more suited to inspire 
a useful Christian lecture than these slides. The slides loaned by 
the Hoard are all good and some of them of most excellent quality 

and constantly Improving. They give pleasure to the mission- 
loving hearts and are a convincing vision to those not interested. 
I shall certainly C intimie their use." 

Rev. Louis Ellms, Vastor of Congregational Church, Hopkinton, 

N. H. 

" I returned the slides on Micronesia a»s requested. I have to 

thank you and whoever originated the plan. It works tine, even 

in a small place. The Haptist pastor here has a stereopticon. 

and we have agreed together to interest the people in mission& 

Sunday evening there were more people out than were at both 
churches in the morning." 

Rev. John M. Brockie, Pastor Congregational Church, Orono, Me. 
" Am returning to you by express this morning set of alides on 

Japan. They were very satisfactory, and 1 feel sure the end we 
are seeking (missionary enthusiasm) 'will be reached in dm- time." 

22 



Rev. George Plummer Merrill, Pastor Prospect Street Congregational 
Church, Newburyport. 

" The Foochow views and lecture were used last evening. The 
vestry was crowded. A line which we will follow again." 

R?v. J. G. Haigh, Pastor of Congregational Church, Middletown 
Springs, Vt. 
" We had a packed house with not standing room, and evidently 
much interest, and expressed desire for more of that kind of 
missionary preaching. The mercury ranged from 25 to 38 below 
zero." 

Rev. Frank E. Ramsdell, Pastor of North Congregational Church, 
New Bedford, Mass. 

" The lecture and slides were very acceptable. Such a service 
solves the problem of interesting the average man in missions." 

Rev. Edwin N. Hardy, Ph.D., Pastor Bethany Congregational 
Church, Quincy, Mass. 

" I have used, with great satisfaction and most encouraging 
results, several of the American Board's stereopticon lecture sets, 
and have found them one of the most effective means of educating 
and interesting my people in missionary work. The illustrations 
attract all, but especially the young and those indifferent to the 
work of Christ in distant lands. The prepared addresses may be 
used, though most speakers prefer the original treatment after 
careful preparation. I most heartily commend the use of the 
stereopticon in the campaign of missionary education." 

Rev. F. R. Luckey, Pastor of Humphrey Street Congregational 
Church, New Haven, Conn. 

" The stereopticon lecture sets, esj cially those recently issued, 
are up-to-date and satisfactory in ?.a respects. In my judgment 
the Board would do well to lay more emphasis upon this way of 
setting forth the work of missions, and pastors should avail them- 
selves of its advantages. If so, I have not the slightest doubt 
that a greater interest would be created in the grandest enterprise 
of God, viz., the perfection of the race in holiness, after the pattern 
of Jesus Christ, our Lord." 

Mr. Carl Wurtzbach Treasurer of Lee Congregational Sunday 
School, Lee, Mass. 
" I am glad to say thai the use of stereopticon lecture sets has 
been of great value to our church in stimulating new interest, and 
reviving the old in all missionary enterprise. We heartily recom- 
mend their use." 

Rev. Matthew Patton, Pastor of Stanwich Congregational Church, 
Greenwich, Conn. 

" I have used nine sets of stereopticon slides as offered by the 
American Board and have found them useful in stimulating 
interest in the work of foreign missions, and also pleasing and 
attractive to the church I serve. I have been surprised to learn 
that the uncolored slides were as much appreciated as the colored 
ones. The judgment and taste used in preparing these sets of 
pictures cannot be praised oo highly, and I am sure that some of 
the sets have led at least on i unconverted man to Christ." 

Rev. Harry LeRoy Brickett, Pastor of Congregational Church, 
Marion, Mass. 
" Having used for several years a good stereopticon in presenting 
missionary intelligence, my experience of the worth of the illus- 
trated lecture is this : (1) it means a large audience, (2) an inter- 
ested gathering, (3) an instructed people, and (4) an ideal assem- 
blage, in that old and young alike make up the congregation. 
The frequent testimonials from my people, to the pleasure expe- 
rienced, and the knowledge gained of countries and peoples, as 
showing the worth and power of the Gospel to transform and save, 
have convinced me of the value of illustrated lectures. They pay." 



23 



Send contributions for the work of the Amer- 
ican Board to 

FRANK H. WIGGIN, Treasurer, 

Congregational House, Boston. 



Literature and leaflets of the American 

1 oard may be had by addressing 

John G. Hosmer, Congregational House, 14 
Beacon street, Boston, Mass. 
Or at the offices of the District Secretaries : 

Rev. C. C. Creegan, D.D., 4th avenue and 
22d street, New York City. 

Rev. A. N. Hitchcock, Ph.D., 153 La Salle 
street, Chicago, 111. 

Rev. H. Melville Tenney, Barker Block, Berke- 
ley, Cal. 



"THE MISSIONARY HERALD." 
Single subscriptions, 75 cents; in clubs of 
ten, 50 cents each. 



FORM OF BEQUEST. 
I give, devise and bequeath unto the " Amer- 
ican Boarl of Commissioners for Foreign Mis- 
sions," incorporated in Massachusetts in (.812, 

the sum of dollars 

to be expended for the appropriate objects of 
said corporation.